System Physiology – Animal

Blood and circulation - Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.

Cardiovascular System- Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.

Respiratory system - Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.

Nervous system - Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.

Sense organs - Vision, hearing and tactile response.

Excretory system - Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolytebalance, acid-base balance.

Thermoregulation - Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.

Stress and adaptation

Digestive system - Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.


Endocrinology and reproduction - Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation

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