System Physiology – Plant

Photosynthesis - Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO fixation-C3 , C4 and CAM pathways.

Respiration and photorespiration Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.

Nitrogen metabolism - Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.

Plant hormones Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.

Sensory photobiology - Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.

Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.

Secondary metabolites - Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.

Stress physiology Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses.

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